# Lesson 2. Working with remote sensing imagery that has multiple bands in R - NAIP raster data in R.

## Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you will be able to:

• Open an RGB image with 3-4 bands in R using plotRGB()
• Export an RGB image as a Geotiff using writeRaster()
• Identify the number of bands stored in a multi-band raster in R.
• Plot various band composits in R including True Color (RGB), and Color Infrared (CIR)

## What you need

You will need a computer with internet access to complete this lesson and the data for week 6 of the course.

## About Raster Bands in R

In the previous weeks, we’ve worked with rasters derived from lidar remote sensing instruments. These rasters consisted of one layer or band and contained information related to height derived from lidar data. In this lesson, we’ll learn how to work with rasters containing spectral (image) data stored within multiple bands (or layers) in R.

Previously, we used the raster() function to open raster data in R. To work with multi-band rasters in R, we need to change how we import and plot our data in several ways.

• To import multi band raster data we will use the stack() function.
• If our multi-band data are imagery that we wish to composite, we can use plotRGB(), instead of plot(), to plot a 3 band raster image.

One type of multi-band raster data that is familiar to many of us is a color image. A color image consists of three bands: red, green, and blue. Each band represents light reflected from the red, green or blue portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The pixel brightness for each band, when composited creates the colors that we see in an image. These colors are the ones our eyes can see within the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

We can plot each band of a multi-band image individually using a grayscale color gradient. Remember from the videos that we watched in class that the LIGHTER colors represent a stronger reflection in that band. DARKER colors represent a weaker reflection.

#### Each band plotted separately

Note there are four bands below. You are looking at the blue, green, red and Near infrared bands of a NAIP image. What do you notice about the relative darkness / lightness of each image? Is one image brighter than the other?

We can plot the red, green and blue bands together to create an RGB image. This is what we would see with our eyes if we were in the airplane looking down at the earth.

## CIR image

If the image has a 4th NIR band, you can create a CIR (sometimes called false color) image. In a color infrared image, the NIR band is plotted on the “red” band. Thus vegetation, which reflects strongly in the NIR part of the spectrum, is colored “red”.

## Other Types of Multi-band Raster Data

Multi-band raster data might also contain:

1. Time series: the same variable, over the same area, over time.
2. Multi or hyperspectral imagery: image rasters that have 4 or more (multi-spectral) or more than 10-15 (hyperspectral) bands.

We will work with time series data later in the semester.

## Work with Landsat data in R

Now, we have learned that basic concepts associated with a multi-band raster. Next, let’s explore some spectral imagery in R to better understand our study site - which is the cold springs fire scare in Colorado near Nederland.

To work with multi-band raster data we will use the raster and rgdal packages.

# load spatial packages
library(raster)
library(rgdal)
library(rgeos)


In this lesson we will use imagery from the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP).

The National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) acquires aerial imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in the continental U.S. A primary goal of the NAIP program is to make digital ortho photography available to governmental agencies and the public within a year of acquisition.

NAIP is administered by the USDA’s Farm Service Agency (FSA) through the Aerial Photography Field Office in Salt Lake City. This “leaf-on” imagery is used as a base layer for GIS programs in FSA’s County Service Centers, and is used to maintain the Common Land Unit (CLU) boundaries. – USDA NAIP Program

NAIP is a great source of high resolution imagery across the United States. NAIP imagery is often collected with just a red, green and Blue band. However, some flights include a near infrared band which is very useful for quantifying vegetation cover and health.

NAIP data access: For this lesson we used the <a href=”USGS Earth explorer site to download NAIP imagery.

Next, let’s open up our NAIP imagery for the Coldsprings fire study area in Colorado.

# Read in multi-band raster with raster function.
# the first band will be read in automatically
# csf = cold springs fire!
naip_csf <- raster("data/week_06/naip/m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926/crop/m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926_crop.tif")

# Plot band 1
plot(naip_csf,
col=gray(0:100 / 100),
axes=FALSE,
main = "NAIP RGB Imagery - Band 1-Red\nCold Springs Fire Scar")



# view data dimensions, CRS, resolution, attributes, and band info
naip_csf
## class       : RasterLayer
## band        : 1  (of  4  bands)
## dimensions  : 2312, 4377, 10119624  (nrow, ncol, ncell)
## resolution  : 1, 1  (x, y)
## extent      : 457163, 461540, 4424640, 4426952  (xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax)
## coord. ref. : +proj=utm +zone=13 +ellps=GRS80 +towgs84=0,0,0,0,0,0,0 +units=m +no_defs
## data source : /Users/lewa8222/Documents/earth-analytics/data/week_06/naip/m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926/crop/m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926_crop.tif
## names       : m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926_crop
## values      : 0, 255  (min, max)


Notice that when we look at the attributes of RGB_Band1, we see:

band: 1 (of 4 bands)

This is R telling us that this particular raster object has more bands (4 in total). We only imported the first band.

Data Tip: The number of bands associated with a raster object can also be determined using the nbands slot. Syntax is [email protected]@nbands, or specifically for our file: [email protected]@nbands.

### Image Raster Data Values

Let’s next examine the raster’s min and max values. What is the value range?

# view min value
minValue(naip_csf)
## [1] 0

# view max value
maxValue(naip_csf)
## [1] 255


This raster contains values between 0 and 255. These values represent degrees of brightness associated with the image band. In the case of a RGB image (red, green and blue), band 1 is the red band. When we plot the red band, larger numbers (towards 255) represent pixels with more red in them (a strong red reflection). Smaller numbers (towards 0) represent pixels with less red in them (less red was reflected). To plot an RGB image, we mix red + green + blue values, using the ratio of each. The ratio of each color is determined by how much light was recorded (the reflectance value) in each band. This mixture creates one single color than inturn makes up the full color image - similar to the color image your camera phone creates.

### Import A Specific Band

We can use the raster() function to import specific bands in our raster object by specifying which band we want with band=N (N represents the band number we want to work with). To import the green band, we would use band=2.

# Can specify which band we want to read in
rgb_band2 <- raster("data/week_06/naip/m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926/crop/m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926_crop.tif",
band = 2)

# plot band 2
plot(rgb_band2,
col=gray(0:100 / 100),
axes=FALSE,
main = "RGB Imagery - Band 2 - Green\nCold Springs Fire Scar")



# view attributes of band 2
rgb_band2
## class       : RasterLayer
## band        : 2  (of  4  bands)
## dimensions  : 2312, 4377, 10119624  (nrow, ncol, ncell)
## resolution  : 1, 1  (x, y)
## extent      : 457163, 461540, 4424640, 4426952  (xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax)
## coord. ref. : +proj=utm +zone=13 +ellps=GRS80 +towgs84=0,0,0,0,0,0,0 +units=m +no_defs
## data source : /Users/lewa8222/Documents/earth-analytics/data/week_06/naip/m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926/crop/m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926_crop.tif
## names       : m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926_crop
## values      : 0, 255  (min, max)


Notice that band 2 is the second of 3 bands band: 2 (of 4 bands).

## Raster Stacks in R

Next, we will work with all four image bands (red, green, blue and near-infrared) as an R RasterStack object. We will then plot a 3-band composite, or full color image.

To bring in all bands of a multi-band raster, we use thestack() function. IMPORTANT: All rasters in a raster stack must have the same extent, CRS and resolution.

# Use stack function to read in all bands
naip_stack_csf <-
stack("data/week_06/naip/m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926/crop/m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926_crop.tif")

# view attributes of stack object
naip_stack_csf
## class       : RasterStack
## dimensions  : 2312, 4377, 10119624, 4  (nrow, ncol, ncell, nlayers)
## resolution  : 1, 1  (x, y)
## extent      : 457163, 461540, 4424640, 4426952  (xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax)
## coord. ref. : +proj=utm +zone=13 +ellps=GRS80 +towgs84=0,0,0,0,0,0,0 +units=m +no_defs
## names       : m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926_crop.1, m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926_crop.2, m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926_crop.3, m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926_crop.4
## min values  :                                 0,                                 0,                                 0,                                 0
## max values  :                               255,                               255,                               255,                               255


We can view the attributes of each band the stack using [email protected]. Or we if we have hundreds of bands, we can specify which band we’d like to view attributes for using an index value: naip_stack_csf[[1]]. We can also use the plot() and hist() functions on the RasterStack to plot and view the distribution of raster band values.

# view raster attributes
naip_stack_csf@layers
## [[1]]
## class       : RasterLayer
## band        : 1  (of  4  bands)
## dimensions  : 2312, 4377, 10119624  (nrow, ncol, ncell)
## resolution  : 1, 1  (x, y)
## extent      : 457163, 461540, 4424640, 4426952  (xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax)
## coord. ref. : +proj=utm +zone=13 +ellps=GRS80 +towgs84=0,0,0,0,0,0,0 +units=m +no_defs
## data source : /Users/lewa8222/Documents/earth-analytics/data/week_06/naip/m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926/crop/m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926_crop.tif
## names       : m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926_crop.1
## values      : 0, 255  (min, max)
##
##
## [[2]]
## class       : RasterLayer
## band        : 2  (of  4  bands)
## dimensions  : 2312, 4377, 10119624  (nrow, ncol, ncell)
## resolution  : 1, 1  (x, y)
## extent      : 457163, 461540, 4424640, 4426952  (xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax)
## coord. ref. : +proj=utm +zone=13 +ellps=GRS80 +towgs84=0,0,0,0,0,0,0 +units=m +no_defs
## data source : /Users/lewa8222/Documents/earth-analytics/data/week_06/naip/m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926/crop/m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926_crop.tif
## names       : m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926_crop.2
## values      : 0, 255  (min, max)
##
##
## [[3]]
## class       : RasterLayer
## band        : 3  (of  4  bands)
## dimensions  : 2312, 4377, 10119624  (nrow, ncol, ncell)
## resolution  : 1, 1  (x, y)
## extent      : 457163, 461540, 4424640, 4426952  (xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax)
## coord. ref. : +proj=utm +zone=13 +ellps=GRS80 +towgs84=0,0,0,0,0,0,0 +units=m +no_defs
## data source : /Users/lewa8222/Documents/earth-analytics/data/week_06/naip/m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926/crop/m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926_crop.tif
## names       : m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926_crop.3
## values      : 0, 255  (min, max)
##
##
## [[4]]
## class       : RasterLayer
## band        : 4  (of  4  bands)
## dimensions  : 2312, 4377, 10119624  (nrow, ncol, ncell)
## resolution  : 1, 1  (x, y)
## extent      : 457163, 461540, 4424640, 4426952  (xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax)
## coord. ref. : +proj=utm +zone=13 +ellps=GRS80 +towgs84=0,0,0,0,0,0,0 +units=m +no_defs
## data source : /Users/lewa8222/Documents/earth-analytics/data/week_06/naip/m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926/crop/m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926_crop.tif
## names       : m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926_crop.4
## values      : 0, 255  (min, max)


View attributes of one band.

# view attributes for one band
naip_stack_csf[[1]]
## class       : RasterLayer
## band        : 1  (of  4  bands)
## dimensions  : 2312, 4377, 10119624  (nrow, ncol, ncell)
## resolution  : 1, 1  (x, y)
## extent      : 457163, 461540, 4424640, 4426952  (xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax)
## coord. ref. : +proj=utm +zone=13 +ellps=GRS80 +towgs84=0,0,0,0,0,0,0 +units=m +no_defs
## data source : /Users/lewa8222/Documents/earth-analytics/data/week_06/naip/m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926/crop/m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926_crop.tif
## names       : m_3910505_nw_13_1_20130926_crop.1
## values      : 0, 255  (min, max)


We can view a histogram of each band in our stack. This is useful to better understand the distribution of reflectance values for each band.

# view histogram for each band
hist(naip_stack_csf,
maxpixels=ncell(naip_stack_csf),
col = "purple")


Plot each band individually.

# plot 4 bands separately
plot(naip_stack_csf,
col=gray(0:100 / 100))


We can plot just one band too if we want.

# plot band 2
plot(naip_stack_csf[[2]],
main = "NAIP Band 2\n Coldsprings Fire Site",
col=gray(0:100 / 100))


## Optional challenge: making sense of single band images

Use the plot() command to compare grayscale plots of band 1 (red), band 2 (green) and band 4 (near infrared). Is the forested area darker or lighter in band 2 (the green band) compared to band 1 (the red band)?

## RGB Data

Previously we’ve explored the single bands in our rasterstack. Next, we’ll plot an RGB image.

### Use plotRGB() to create a composite 3 band image

To render a 3 band, color image in R, we use plotRGB().

This function allows us to:

1. Identify what bands we want to render in the red, green and blue regions. The plotRGB() function defaults to a 1=red, 2=green, and 3=blue band order. However, you can define what bands you’d like to plot manually. Manual definition of bands is useful if you have, for example a near-infrared band and want to create a color infrared image.
2. Adjust the stretch of the image to increase or decrease contrast.

Let’s plot our 3-band image.

# Create an RGB image from the raster stack
plotRGB(naip_stack_csf,
r = 1, g = 2, b = 3,
main = "RGB image \nColdsprings fire scar")


Here’s how we add a title to our plot. To do this, we adjust the parameters of the plot as follows:

• col.axis="white": set the axes to render in white. if you turn off the axes then the plot title will also be turned off.
• col.lab="white": turn plot tick mark labels to white
• tck=0: turn off plot “ticks”

Finally after the plot code if you set box(col = "white") it removes the line that is drawn alongside of your plot.

# adjust the plot parameters to render the axes using white
# this is a way to "trick" R
par(col.axis="white", col.lab="white", tck=0)
plotRGB(naip_stack_csf,
r = 1, g = 2, b = 3,
axes=T,
main = "NAIP RGB image \nColdsprings fire scar")
box(col = "white") # turn all of the lines to white


The image above looks pretty good. We can explore whether applying a stretch to the image might improve clarity and contrast using stretch="lin" or stretch="hist".

# what does stretch do?
plotRGB(naip_stack_csf,
r = 1, g = 2, b = 3,
axes=T,
stretch = "lin",
main = "NAIP RGB plot with linear stretch\nColdsprings fire scar")


What does the image look like using a different stretch? Any better? worse?

par(col.axis="white", col.lab="white", tck=0)
plotRGB(naip_stack_csf,
r = 1, g = 2, b = 3,
axes=T,
scale=800,
stretch = "hist",
main = "NAIP RGB plot with hist stretch\nColdsprings fire scar")
box(col = "white") # turn all of the lines to white


In this case, the stretch doesn’t enhance the contrast our image significantly given the distribution of reflectance (or brightness) values is distributed well between 0 and 255. We are lucky! Our NAIP imagery has been processed well and thus we don’t need to worry about image stretch.

## RasterStack vs RasterBrick in R

The R RasterStack and RasterBrick object types can both store multiple bands. However, how they store each band is different. The bands in a RasterStack are stored as links to raster data that is located somewhere on our computer. A RasterBrick contains all of the objects stored within the actual R object. In most cases, we can work with a RasterBrick in the same way we might work with a RasterStack. However a RasterBrick is often more efficient and faster to process - which is important when working with larger files.

We can turn a RasterStack into a RasterBrick in R by using brick(StackName). Let’s use the object.size() function to compare stack and brick R objects.

# view size of the RGB_stack object that contains our 3 band image
object.size(naip_stack_csf)
## 53904 bytes

# convert stack to a brick
naip_brick_csf <- brick(naip_stack_csf)

# view size of the brick
object.size(naip_brick_csf)
## 13208 bytes


Notice that in the RasterBrick, all of the bands are stored within the actual object. Thus, the RasterBrick object size is much larger than the RasterStack object.

You use plotRGB to block a RasterBrick too.

par(col.axis="white", col.lab="white", tck=0)
# plot brick
plotRGB(naip_brick_csf,
main = "NAIP plot from a rasterbrick",
axes=T)
box(col = "white") # turn all of the lines to white


## Optional challenge

The NAIP image that we’ve been working with so far is pre-fire. Import the naip/m_3910505_nw_13_1_20150919/crop/m_3910505_nw_13_1_20150919_crop.tif into R and plot a

1. RGB image
2. CIR image

Then anwer the following questions:

• How many bands does the raster have?
• What CRS is the raster in?
• What is the resolution of the data?

## Optional challenge: What Methods Can Be Used on an R Object?

We can view various methods available to call on an R object with methods(class=class(objectNameHere)). Use this to figure out:

1. What methods can be used to call on the naip_stack_csf object?
2. What methods are available for a single band within naip_stack_csf?
3. Why do you think there is a difference?